Randolph is a township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States.As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 25,734, reflecting an increase of 887 from the 24,847 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 4,873 from the 19,974 counted in the 1990 Census.
The earliest known inhabitants of what is now Randolph were the Lenni Lenape Native Americans. The earliest European settlers of what is now Randolph were Quakers and one of the pioneering landowners was Hartshorne Fitz-Randolph, who purchased 1,000 acres of what would become the township in the Mine Hill area in 1753, later becoming the namesake of the township. New Jersey's first iron mine was established in Randolph in 1713, and for hundreds of years the mines fostered the development of the township, providing the raw materials for weapons used by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War.During the war, the area was a supply point for George Washington's army during their winter encampment in nearby Jockey Hollow.
Randolph was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 1, 1806, from portions of Mendham Township.Portions of the township were taken on April 1, 1869, to create Dover Town within the township, which became an independent municipality as of March 5, 1896. Other portions of the township were taken to create Port Oram, Mine Hill Township, and Victory Gardens. The creation of Victory Gardens created a small triangular exclave of the township, surrounded by Victory Gardens to the southeast and Dover to the northwest.
Randolph became a vacation haven in the early part of the 20th century, known for its woods, ponds, lakes and air. Through the 1950s, farms, large hotels and bungalow colonies dotted the community. Performers such as Phil Silvers, and Frank Sinatra appeared at the hotels. Boxers Max Baer, Floyd Patterson, James J. Braddock and Rocky Marciano trained or fought at the Saltz Hotel.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 21.071 square miles, including 20.822 square miles of land and 0.249 square miles of water.
Land in Randolph ranges from 551 feet to 1,120 feet above sea level. Randolph Township has been designated half rural, half suburban by the New Jersey State Planning Commission.
Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the township include Black River Pond, Calis, Center Grove, Fernbrook, Ironia, Mill Brook, Mount Fern, Mount Freedom, Shongum and Youngstown.
Situated upstream of the Black River, the South Branch of the Raritan River, the Whippany River and the Rockaway River, the hills of Randolph attracted settlers and its streams provided power for industry.
The township borders Mine Hill, Dover, Rockaway Township and Victory Gardens to the north, Mendham Township to the south, Denville Township and Morris Township to the east, Chester Township to the southwest and Roxbury to the west all of which are located in Morris County. It is a suburb of New York City.
The Randolph Township Schools educate children in public school for pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade, as well as special-needs preschoolers. As of the 2015-16 school year, the district's six schools had an enrollment of 4,849 students and 408.3 classroom teachers for a student–teacher ratio of 11.9:1. Schools in the district are Center Grove Elementary School (477 students; in grades PreK-5), Fernbrook Elementary School (538; K-5), Ironia Elementary School (449; K-5), Shongum Elementary School (475; K-5), Randolph Middle School for grades 6-8 (1,236 students) and Randolph High Schoolfor grades 9-12 (1,621 students).
Established in 1968, the main campus of the County College of Morris is located on a 218-acre campus in Randolph Township Rutgers University has a partnership with County College of Morris that allows students who have earned an associate degree to complete a bachelor's degree through the off-campus Rutgers courses taken at the County College of Morris campus in Randolph.
The Gottesman RTW Academy (Formerly Hebrew Academy of Morris County) is a coeducational Jewish day school for students in preschool through eighth grade, serving approximately 225 children. The school has been recognized as a recipient of the National Blue Ribbon School Award by the United States Department of Education.